What causes cancer?
Mutations in DNA will lead to abnormalities in cell behaviour. An example of abnormal cell behaviour may mean that a cell grows and divides too quickly or fails to stop uncontrolled growth. Some causes of cancer are known, such as inherited genetic mutations, exposure to certain viruses, chemical substances, or lengthy periods exposed to sunlight. However, in most cases, the cause of cancer remains unknown.
- mammary cancer;
- lipomas (fatty tumours);
- mast cell tumours;
- carcinomas (affecting internal organs);
- mast cell tumours; and
- osteosarcoma (bone cancer).
There are some less worrying but common growths that are seen, these include:
- sebaceous cysts;
- warts; and abscesses.
The most common areas for growths to be found include
- mammary glands;
- blood; and
- anal glands (dogs).
As veterinary professionals, we advise you to make checking your pet for growths part of your usual grooming or brushing routine, or perhaps when you’re petting your animals after a long day at work. Remember, it’s always better to check.
How is cancer diagnosed?
Diagnosis involves assessing the abnormal cells; a fine needle aspirate (FNA) is usually performed initially. An FNA involves a very fine needle inserted into an area of abnormal-appearing tissue or body fluid. This can be done during a consultation and often can be quick if your pet is comfortable. However, if the area is sore or in a hard-to-reach space, your veterinary surgeon may advise on a small quick sedation to make it safe and stress-free.
Depending on the FNA results, a biopsy under general anaesthesia may be suggested or X-rays, a CT or MRI scan and ultrasound. These diagnostics can be used to detect evidence of a malignant tumour spreading. Blood tests may be taken to assess the patient’s general health and fitness for treatment, to look for other diseases, or, in some cases, to make a diagnosis of cancer.
What is the best way to check my pet for growths or lumps and bumps?
We advise starting at your pet’s head end and finishing at the back end. Do this at a time when you’re both relaxed and comfortable. If your pet turns away or wishes not to have this done, try breaking down the check into smaller checks.
- ears (visually check the inside and outer ear followed by feeling with your hands for any changes);
- mouth (inside and out if your pet allows this);
- front legs;
- paws (don’t forget in-between the pads and toes);
- tummy (including the mammary glands);
- back legs;
- back paws (don’t forget in-between the pads and toes);
- anus; and
There are three main treatments for cancer.
Surgery: the surgical removal of the tumour cells
Radiotherapy: the use of a strong X-ray beam to destroy cancer cells
Chemotherapy: the use of anti-cancer drugs to kill cancer cells wherever they are in the body
The most appropriate treatment will depend on the nature, location and extent of the tumour. Also, the pet’s overall health and you as the owner’s expectations need to be considered before deciding on a treatment plan.
What is the outlook for cancer?
Many pets can be treated successfully and in some cases, they can be cured of their disease. We would always be able to help and improve the quality of life of a pet with cancer in some way.